Maya Ballcourt. Digital image. Maya3D. N.p., 2013. Web. 20 Mar. 2013. <;.

The Hoop. Digital image. Chicen Itza 1987. Galenfrysinger, 2013. Web. 20 Mar. 2013. <;.

Mesoamerican Ballgame Tableau. Digital image. Mesoamerican Pottery., n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2013. <;.

Olmec Ballplayer. Digital image. Sport/Activity: American Indigenous Games: Mesoamerican Ball Game. 4.4 Million Days, 2012. Web. 20 Mar. 2013. <;.

Some images courtesy of Abigail Holeman (Doctoral Candidate at University of Virginia).


Blümchen G: The Maya Ball Game. Cardiology 2009;113:231-235 (DOI: 10.1159/000203640)

Cohodas, Marvin. “The Symbolism and Ritual Function of the Middle Classic Ball Game in Mesoamerica,” American Indian Quarterly , Vol. 2, No. 2 (Summer, 1975), pp. 99-130 Published by: University of Nebraska Press, Article Stable URL:

Evans, Susan Toby. Ancient Mexico & Central America: Archaeology and Culture History. [New York]: Thames & Hudson, 2008. Print.

Whittington, E. Michael., and Douglas E. Bradley. The Sport of Life and Death: The Mesoamerican Ballgame. London: Thames & Hudson, 2001. Print.


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